Healthcare Treatment Guidelines

It seems swine flu confusion is spreading almost as fast as the pandemic. What should pregnant women do? Who will be vaccinated, and when?

It’s not clear. The World Health Organization estimates that, by August, global production of the vaccine will reach 94.5 million doses per week. But this estimate relies on all companies using formulations with novel adjuvants – additives to the vaccine that boost the immune response and reduce the amount of virus needed for each dose.

However, the adjuvants have not been approved for use in the US. Last week the US National Biodefense Science Board said that in order to have any vaccine available by September, the US should stick to the well-tested formulation of the seasonal flu vaccine – with 15 micrograms of the main viral protein, haemagglutinin, per dose.

The WHO warns though that if adjuvants are not “fully used” the amount of vaccine available per week will fall by 40-50 per cent.

When can we expect a vaccine? Who will get the vaccine first?

Debora MacKenzie investigates at | Read Full Story

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  • Filed under: Swine Flu
  • Over compulsive disorder affects people in many different ways – at least 2% of the population are being driven to despair trying to cope with this disorder. The symptoms differ for each individual – some more so than others where severity of the condition has encouraged a patient to become a hostage to their own thoughts.

    No Matter how rebellious a sufferer is when trying to fight and control their actions and thoughts – they sometimes find it easier to let those intrusive obscene thoughts continue and suffer in silence. Repetitive compulsions have to be carried out by a sufferer to find solace.

    Daily duties and rituals performed by an over compulsive disorder sufferer is often seen by the outsider as odd. Strange behaviour patterns from a person suffering from OCD will never be understood by the sane outsider as they see themselves next to an oddball.
    Behaviour patterns of an obsessive-compulsive disorder victim can cause so much havoc and misery in that person`s life – to an extent when they feel they can not go on and in some cases that has been the case where suicide was the only way out.

    Over compulsive disorder can instigate a flare up of depression where sufferers experience anxious moments if their compulsions or repetitive actions are prevented from being performed. When OCD begins to meddle with your everyday activities then it is time to seek help because it is now turning serious affecting how you live your life.

    Doctors dedicated to this mind meddling disorder once believed that OCD was a condition rarely heard of – but in fact it is now becoming more common than other mind or mental ailments – namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It is said that in the US there are over 3 million people suffering from over-compulsive disorder. Parents should be aware that children can also be affected by OCD so if you notice any unusual change in your child`s ways then talk to a doctor. This disorder is known to stem from childhood.

    Do not be alarmed at the fact that there is no known cure for this complaint because there are remedies to help control the symptoms that are slowly tearing your world apart. Treatment is available also medical advice to treat your nonsensical behaviours – but as senseless as these behaviours may seem it is still a difficult task to liberate your self from them alone.

    Unwanted behaviours can be sedated and calmed with the right medicinal potions or therapy.
    Medical staff show uncertainty to the reasons behind and exact cause of OCD. Research says the cause is biological, while others beg to differ believing this disorder is a learned behaviour. Facts state that the chances are increased of you developing over compulsive disorder if a close relative or family member be a victim. However, it has not been proven or identified by researchers that genes are guilty to this being a hand me down illness.

    Consult your doctor if you or a member of the family is showing signs of this disorder or any other illness – by not talking to someone can only add more pain and suffering.

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  • Filed under: Depression
  • Xanax is an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) drug used in the treatment of many psychological disorders including panic disorder and anxiety disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It also has its uses in managing nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy.

    First released in 1981 by Pfizer, a well-known pharmaceutical company based out of New York, Xanax is the trade name for Alprazolam, a benzodiazepine drug, whose chemical name is 8-Chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo [4,3-α] [1,4] benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepine drugs are psychoactive drugs which produce anti-depressant, sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnesic reactions. Some patients are looking to get Xanax pills online at lower prices, including the generic version of the drug – Alprazolam.

    Xanax works by binding to the benzodiazepine (GABA) receptors in the brain. GABA receptors are one of the main neurotransmitters in the Central Nervous System (CNS). By attaching to these receptors, this drug provides relief from panic as well as anxiety related disorders by altering the mood centers in the brain. In the intestinal tract, Xanax is absorbed and attains peak plasma levels in about 1 to 2 hrs. And like most psychoactive drugs, it is excreted in the urine.

    Most Benzodiazepine drugs are Schedule IV drugs – that they have very low risk of abuse. Additionally unlike opium derived drug, use of Xanax does not result in addiction symptoms. It has very low risk of tolerance related problems and withdrawal effects if the right dosage is taken.

    Purchase Xanax with the Right Dosage
    Buying Xanax dosage depends on the severity of the disorder. Dosage should be gradually titrated, with a starting dose of about 0.5mg which can be increased by about 1mg a day at intervals of 3 to 4 days. Doctors generally do this because the dosage per person is not very finely calibrated and differs from person to person. By starting low and going up, the doctor can figure out the minimum dosage that the patient needs without overdosing them.

    Dosage strengths
    Instant Release tablets (IR) – 0.125 mg,0.25mg, 0.5mg, 1mg and 2mg
    Extended Release (XR) – 0.5mg, 1mg, 2mg and 3mg
    Dosage Information
    Anxiety – 0.25 to 5 mg/ 3 times a day once in 3 to 4 days, max of 4 mg per day
    Panic disorders – 1 to 10mg per day (Average dosage 5 to 6mg/day)
    Patients with liver problems – 0.25mg per day

    Dosage duration
    Panic attacks – 4 to 10 weeks
    Anxiety disorders – 2 to 4 weeks
    When the medication has to be stopped, it has to be done gradually to reduce withdrawal symptoms. This can be done by decreasing the quantity of drug administered by 0.5 mg every day.

    Xanax Prescription Drug interactions
    Since benzodiazepine drugs have a sedative effect on the brain, it can cause complications in certain conditions and when mixed with certain drugs. And that is the reason why care must be taken when prescribed to pregnant women, elderly people and drug abusers.

    Some of the conditions in which Xanax should not be administered are Myasthenia gravis (neuromuscular disease), glaucoma (damage to optic nerve), liver cirrhosis, sleep apenea (abnormal low breathing during sleep), allergy to benzodiazepine drugs and borderline personality disorder. This is because this drug may result in suicidal tenancies and dyscontrol (violent and uncontrollable social behavior) in such patients.

    Xanax Side effects
    Like all CNS suppressants, this drug results in reduced alertness, loss of coordination, drowsiness, uncontrolled social behavior, slurred speech, rash, constipation, respiratory depression, lack of concentration and vertigo.

    In chronic users, the drug alters the adaptation of the receptors, resulting in tolerance to the drug, dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Additionally in those who discontinue the drug, rebound anxiety is common. Rebound anxiety is characterized by symptoms stronger than before on discontinuation of the drug.

    Other rare side effects are anterograde amnesia (a condition in which new memories are not created after the trauma that caused the amnesia in the first place), jaundice, hallucinations, dry mouth, urinary retention and suicidal tendencies.

    This drug also has paradoxical reactions, this is an effect where the drug has the opposite effect of what it is supposed to, resulting in aggression, rage, twitches, tremors, mania, agitation, hyperactivity and restlessness.

    This drug should also be avoided during pregnancy and nursing as it is able to reach the fetus, resulting in congenital abnormalities, drug dependence and withdrawal symptoms. In nursing children it results in lethargy and a tendency to lose weight. Also abrupt withdrawal of this drug during pregnancy can lead to abortion of the fetus.

    The Drug Addictions
    There is very low risk of addiction to this drug. However, consuming more than 4mg a day may results in drug dependence. Also discontinuation of Alprazolam results in tiredness, weakness, sleeplessness, tachycardia, mental sluggishness, delirium, seizures and drowsiness.

    Overdose of Xanax information
    Overdose reactions depends on quantity of drug ingested and could result in any of these symptoms from excessive sleepiness, low blood pressure, loss of equilibrium, dizziness and muscle weakness to fainting, shallow breathing, coma and death.

    Xanax is among the most favored drugs to be purchased online to treat panic and anxiety related disorders and it is increasingly used to treat chemotherapy related nausea. With very low risk of abuse, it is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the US. As long as you take this drug under the supervision of a medical professional, you should be safe from potential addiction and overdose problems.

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  • Filed under: Anxiety disorders, Anxiety Treatment
  • Asthma, a disease of the human respiratory system, which narrows the airways, commonly in response to a “trigger” such as an exposure to an allergen, exercise, cold air, or emotional stress. This narrowing can cause symptoms like shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing. Between asthmatic episodes, most people with the condition feel fine.

    This disease is a chronic inflammatory condition wherin the airways develop an increased responsiveness to certain stimuli, shown by bronchial hyper-responsiveness, increased mucus production, inflammation, and intermittent airway obstruction. Asthma can be anywhere from mild to life threatening, but can generally be controlled with a combination of drugs, inhalers and changes in lifestyle. People have focused on asthma recently because of its rapidly increasing number of patients, affecting up to one in four urban children. Genetic factors can contribute to cases of asthma, but there is no clear pattern of inheritance found. It is a very complex disease which is influenced by many various developmental, genetic, and environmental factors, which work togetherto create the widespread condition.

    Breast-fed babies have proved to be less susceptible to asthma. Current research indicates that the prevalence of asthma in children has been increasing. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health Interview Surveys, around 9.2% of US children under 18 years old had asthma in 2001, in comparison with just 4% in 1980. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 8% of the population of Switzerland suffer from asthma today, compared to 1.9% in 1983. Asthma is more common in countries outside North America, but is by no means a problem restricted to location. “WHO” estimates that there are between 15.3 and 20.1 million asthmatics in India. In the U.S., urban residents, African Americans and Hispanics are affected moreso than the population as a whole.

    Around the globe, asthma is the cause of approximately 175,000 deaths per year. Asthma and AthleticsAsthma appear to be more common in athletes than in the general population. One particular survey of participants in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games revealed that 16% had asthma, and 10% were on medication for asthma. There seems to be a high number of asthmatics in sports like mountain biking, cycling, and long-distance running, and a somewhat low percentage in weightlifting. It is not clear how much of these cases are results of the effects of training in the sport.

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  • Filed under: Asthma treatment
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